In a remarkable discovery, Finnish scientists have identified that an extract from willow bark may hold the key to combating future viral outbreaks.
This plant, which historically contributed to the development of aspirin, has now been found to have broad-spectrum antiviral properties, effective against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. These include strains that cause common colds, COVID-19, flu, and meningitis.
Professor Varpu Marjomäki from the University of Jyväskylä, who led the research, emphasized the urgent need for versatile antiviral agents in the face of emerging epidemics.
“We need broadly acting and efficient tools to combat the virus load in our everyday life,” said Professor Marjomäki. “Vaccinations are important, but they cannot deal with many of the newly emerging serotypes early enough to be effective on their own.”
Focus of the study
The research team had previously demonstrated the effectiveness of willow bark extract on enteroviruses. For the new study, they wanted to test the extract on additional types of viruses. The goal was to understand the underlying mechanism of action.
Through a meticulous process of harvesting, grinding, and hot water extraction, the researchers produced a willow bark extract.
The extract demonstrated high efficacy in protecting cells from viral infections without damaging the cells themselves. This finding is particularly significant given the absence of clinically approved drugs targeting enteroviruses.
Interestingly, while the extract prevented both types of viruses from spreading, the mechanism of action varied. For enveloped coronaviruses, the extract disrupted the virus structure, whereas for non-enveloped enteroviruses, it prevented the release of the viral genome, effectively stopping reproduction.
“The extracts acted through distinct mechanisms against different viruses,” said Marjomäki. “But the extracts were equally effective in inhibiting the enveloped as well as non-enveloped viruses.”
The team also tested various willow-derived compounds and commercial extracts. Only one showed antiviral activity, suggesting that a complex interaction of bioactive compounds in the bark extract could be responsible for the observed effects.
Despite the promising results, the exact bioactive compounds and their mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The team is committed to continuing their research, aiming to isolate and identify these compounds and expand their studies to a broader spectrum of viruses.
“We are presently continuing fractionations and bioactive molecule identification from willow bark extracts,” said Marjomäki. “This will give us a number of identified pure molecules which we can study in further detail. Also, we will study a larger number of viruses with purified components. Purified components will give us better opportunities to study their mechanisms of action.”
If successful, this research could pave the way for new, nature-derived medicines to treat viral infections like colds and flu, marking a significant breakthrough in antiviral therapy.
Willow bark, the bark of several varieties of willow tree, has been used for centuries for pain relief and as an anti-inflammatory agent. It contains salicin, a substance that when taken into the body is metabolized to salicylic acid, which is the active component of aspirin. The use of willow bark dates back to the time of Hippocrates when people were advised to chew on the bark to reduce fever and inflammation.
Willow bark is available as a herbal supplement and is used for various conditions such as headaches, muscle pain, menstrual cramps, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, and a disease of the spine called ankylosing spondylitis. It’s considered a natural alternative to synthetic aspirin, being gentler on the stomach, though it acts more slowly than aspirin and the effects are less potent per dosage.
The efficacy of willow bark as an antiviral agent, as highlighted in the study, opens up new potential applications for this traditional medicine. The researchers are delving into the complex interactions of its bioactive compounds to understand how they confer antiviral properties, which could lead to innovative treatments for viral diseases in the future.
The study is published in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.
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